Open Access Original Research Article

Compression of Monochromatic and Multicolored Image with Neural Network

Ragmi Mustafa, Basri Ahmedi, Kujtim Mustafa

Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcos/2021/v9i130213

Nowadays we have so much images provided by different types of machines, while we need to store them or transfer to other devices or via internet, we need to compress them because the images usually have large amount of size. Compressing them reduces time for transferring files. The compression can be done with different methods and software in order to reduce their capacity expressed in megabytes as much as tens of hundreds of gigabytes for more files. It is well known that the speed of information transmission depends mainly on its quantity or the capacity of the information package. Image compression is a very important task for data transfer and data storage, especially nowadays because of the development of many image acquisition devices. If there is no compression technique used on these data, they may occupy immense space of memory, or render difficult data transmission. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have demonstrated good capacities for lossy image compression. The ANN algorithm we investigate is BEP-SOFM, which uses a Backward Error Propagation algorithm to quickly obtain the initial weights, and then these weights are used to speed up the training time required by the Self-Organizing Feature Map algorithm. In order to obtain these initial weights with the BEP algorithm, we analyze the hierarchical approach, which consists in preparing the image to compress using the quadtree data structure by segmenting the image into blocks of different sizes. Small blocks are used to represent image areas with large-scale details, while the larger ones represent the areas that have a small number of observed details. Tests demonstrate that the approach of quadtree segmentation quickly leads to the initial weights using the BEP algorithm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of LSA, NMF and ILSA in Electronic Assessment of Free Text Document

M. M. Rufai, A. O. Afolabi, O. D. Fenwa, F. A. Ajala

Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 46-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcos/2021/v9i130214

Aims: To evaluate the performance of an Improved Latent Semantic Analysis (ILSA), Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) algorithms in an Electronic Assessment Application using metrics, Term Similarity, Precision, Recall and F-measure functions, Mean divergence, Assessment Accuracy and Adequacy in Semantic Representation.

Methodology: The three algorithms were separately applied in developing an Electronic Assessment application. One hundred students’ responses to a test question in an introductory artificial intelligence course were used. Their performance was measured based on the following metrics, Term Similarity, Precision, Recall and F-measure functions, Mean divergence and Assessment Accuracy.

Results: ILSA outperformed the LSA and NMF with an assessment accuracy of 96.64, mean divergence from manual score of 0.03, and recall, precision and f-measure value of 0.83, 0.85 and 0.87 respectively.

Conclusion: The research observed the performance of an improved algorithm ILSA for electronic Assessment of free text document using Adequacy in Semantic Representation, Retrieval Quality and Assessment Accuracy as performance metrics. The results obtained from the experimental designs shows the adequacy of the improved algorithm in semantic representation, better retrieval quality and improved assessment accuracy.

Open Access Review Article

Skin Lesions Classification Using Deep Learning Techniques: Review

Omar Sedqi Kareem, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Diyar Qader Zeebaree

Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcos/2021/v9i130210

Skin cancer is a significant health problem. More than 123,000 new cases per year are recorded. Melanoma is the most popular type of skin cancer, leading to more than 9000 deaths annually in the USA. Skin disease diagnosis is getting difficult due to visual similarities. While Melanoma is the most common form of skin cancer, other pathology types are also fatal. Automatic melanoma screening systems will be useful in identifying those skin cancers more appropriately. Advances in technology and growth in computational capabilities have allowed machine learning and deep learning algorithms to analyze skin lesion images. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have achieved more encouraging results, yet faster systems for diagnosing fatal diseases are the need of the hour. This paper presents a survey of techniques for skin cancer detection from images. The paper aims to present a review of existing state-of-the-art and effective models for automatically detecting Melanoma from skin images. The result of classifications and segmentation from the skin lesion images will be processed better using the ensemble deep learning algorithm.

Open Access Review Article

Medical Images Breast Cancer Segmentation Based on K-Means Clustering Algorithm: A Review

Noor Salah Hassan, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez, Diyar Qader Zeebaree, Dathar A. Hasan

Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 23-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcos/2021/v9i130212

Early diagnosis is considered important for medical images of breast cancer, the rate of recovery and safety of affected women can be improved. It is also assisting doctors in their daily work by creating algorithms and software to analyze the medical images that can identify early signs of breast cancer. This review presents a comparison has been done in term of accuracy among many techniques used for detecting breast cancer in medical images. Furthermore, this work describes the imaging process, and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the used techniques for mammography and ultrasound medical images. K-means clustering algorithm has been                       specifically used to analyze the medical image along with other techniques. The results                        of the K-means clustering algorithm are discussed and evaluated to show the capacity of this technique in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its reliability to identify a malignant from a benign tumor.

Open Access Review Article

IoT for Smart Environment Monitoring Based on Python: A Review

Saad Hikmat Haji, Amira B. Sallow

Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science, Volume 9, Issue 1, Page 57-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcos/2021/v9i130215

Air pollution, water pollution, and radiation pollution are significant environmental factors that need to be addressed. Proper monitoring is crucial with the goal that by preserving a healthy society, the planet can achieve sustainable development. With advancements in the internet of things (IoT) and the improvement of modern sensors, environmental monitoring has evolved into a smart environment monitoring (SEM) system in recent years. This article aims to have a critical overview of significant contributions and SEM research, which include monitoring the quality of air , water pollution, radiation pollution, and agricultural systems. The review is divided based on the objectives of applying SEM methods, analyzing each objective about the sensors used, machine learning, and classification methods. Moreover, the authors have thoroughly examined how advancements in sensor technology, the Internet of Things, and machine learning methods have made environmental monitoring into a truly smart monitoring system.