Main Article Content
An in-depth study of Stable Election Protocol (SEP) revealed that, distance was not considered in selecting the cluster heads in the network. This allows a distant node that is selected as the head to dissipate huge energy in transmitting data to the Base station (BS). It was further observed that, whenever the Base station is relocated outside the field, the energy consumption of the network is high and hence shortening the lifetime of the network. In this paper, a Gateway-SEP protocol is proposed. The G-SEP modified the election probability of electing cluster heads by considering the distance, average distance and residual energy of the advanced nodes. The scheme also introduced a gateway node at the centre of the network and then installed the BS outside the field. Simulation results using MatLab R2017a showed that, the G-SEP performs better than Zonal-Stable Election protocol (ZSEP) in terms of coverage, stability period, throughput and network lifetime.
Wang F, Liu J. Networked wireless sensor data collection: Issues, challenges and approaches. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 2011;13(4): 673–687.
Seddiki N, Abedsalem B. Study of the performance of multi-hop routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications. 2017; 8(2):378-384.
Guo P, Iang T, Zhang JK, Chen HH. Clustering algorithm in initialization of multi-hop wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communica-tions. 2009;8(12):5713–5717.
Faisal S, Javaid N, avaid AJ, Khan MA, Bouk SH, KhanZA. Z-SEP: Zonal-stable election protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2013;1–9.
Arya G, Chauhan DS, Modified stable election protocol (M-SEP) for hierarchical WSN. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2013;79(16): 35-39.
Sharma S. Improved stable election protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor network. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2015;4(4): 1370-1374.
Divya1 C, Krishnan N, Gandhimathy T. Energy efficient stable election protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE). 2013;12(5):55-61.
Elbhiri B, Saadane R, El Fkihiand S, Aboutajdine D. Developed Distributed Energy-efficient Clustering (DDEEC) for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. I/V Communications and Mobile Network (ISVC), 5th International Symposium on. 2010;1-4.
Saini P, Sharma AK. E-DEEC- enhanced distributed energy efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous WSN”. 1st International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing. 2010;205-210.
Saini P, Sharma AK. Energy efficient scheme for clustering protocol prolonging the lifetime of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Computer Applications. 2010;6(2):30-36.
Jibreel F. Improved developed distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme (IDDEEC). International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2018;3(12):564-567.
Jibreel F. Improved Enhanced Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (iE-DEEC) scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor network. International Journal of Engineering Research and Advanced Technology (IJERAT). 2019;5(1):6-11.
Kaur G, Kaur S. Enhanced m-gear protocol for lifetime enhancement in wireless clustering system. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2016;147(14):30-34.
Jibreel F. Improved-gateway-based energy-aware multi-hop routing protocol for WSNs. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2018;3(12):625-630.
Smaragdakis G, Matta I, Bestavros A. SEP: A Stable election protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Second International Workshop on Sensor and Actor Network Protocols and Applications. 2004;1-11.
Dener MA. New gateway node for wireless sensor network applications. Scientific Research and Essays. 2016;11(20):213-220.