Trotro Pass: Ghanaian Commercial Vehicle Passenger Accounting System

Main Article Content

B. Kommey
H. Maazu
A. S. Adjei
J. Issah


Commercial transport in Ghana is generally unsupervised; vehicle owners and transport managers alike lack tools to properly monitor and track the performance of drivers. Usually, fixed amounts are given to drivers as a daily goal, anything more than that is payment for the driver's services. This fixed amount is usually based on intuition and not on statistical data that at least estimates how much a driver makes in a day of commute. This project is intended to give commercial vehicle managers the ability to track location of vehicles and cumulatively estimate how much money is being made, up until end of a day of commute. This is achieved through a design that makes use of a distributed collection of embedded systems in the vehicle, equipped with GPS and cellular data connection, which would transmit and store information on a server. A user-friendly application would then query and display in real time the location of vehicles and estimate amount made so far up until end of the day. With feasibility and cost in mind some solutions are adopted and modified if need be. This coupled with embedded system design and software engineering, we develop a system that accomplishes the stated goals. An accuracy of 89.4% was achieved in our cumulative travel distance measurements.

Minibus, monitor, accounting, occupancy, passenger, seat, transport.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kommey, B., Maazu, H., S. Adjei, A., & Issah, J. (2019). Trotro Pass: Ghanaian Commercial Vehicle Passenger Accounting System. Asian Journal of Research in Computer Science, 4(3), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Fouracre PR, Kwakye EA, Okyere JN, Silcock D. Public transport in Ghanaian Cities - A Case of Union Power. Transport Reviews. 1994;14(1):45-61.

Yobo E. The politics of public transportation in Ghana: The Case of Metro Mass Transit Limited; 2013. [Online]. Available:
[Accessed 8 12 2018]

Patlins A, Kunicina N. The new approach for passenger counting in public transport system, in IEEE, Warsaw, Poland; 2015.

Kasten K, Stratmann A, Munz M, Dirscherl K, Lamers S. iBoltTechnology— A weight sensing system for advanced passenger safety. Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications. 2006;171–186.

Gagnon SD, Husby HS. Seat occupant sensing system. United States of America Patent 5 971 432; 1999.

M. D. a. A. M.-H. A. Giralt. Detection and classification of passenger seat occupancy using stereovision. Proc.IEEEIntell. Vehicles Symp. 2000;714–719.

Stefan W, Otto L, Becker G, Castillo-Franco M, Mirbach B. A cascade detector approach applied to vehicle occupant monitoring with anomni-directionalcamera. Proc. IEEEIntell. Vehicles Symp. 2004; 345–350.

Fritzsche M, Prestele C. Vehicle occupancy monitoring with optical range-sensors. Proc. IEEE Intell. Vehicles Symp. 2004;90–94.

George B, Zangl H, Bretterklieber T, Brasseur G. Seat occupancy detection based on capacitive sensing. Instrumenta-tion and Measurement. 2009;58(5):1487–1494.

Watson P, Watson I, Batt R. Total body water volumes for adult males and females estimated from simple anthropometric measurements. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1980;33(1):27–39.

Zeeman AS, Booysen MJ. Capacitive seat sensors for multiple occupancy detection using a low-cost setup. Stellenbosch; 2013.

Hoch E. Electrode effects in the measurement of power factor and dielectric constant of sheet insulating materials. Bell System Technical Journal. 1926;5:555.

Bahl I, Trivedi D. A designer’s guide to microstrip line. Microwaves. 1977;16(5): 174-175.